Cognitive Ways of Thinking Critically

Critical thinking or higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) emerge through various forms. The examples below are some of the ways HOTS are revealed and may either exist in isolation or may overlap - they are not necessarily mutually exclusive. They can also be subsets of each other depending on the educational context and the purpose of the educative experience.

Content vs. Performance


Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning


Abstract vs. Concrete Thinking

Temporal vs. Spatial Thinking

Sound Judgments

Cause-and-Effect Relationships

Problem/Solution

Other

Process

Robust Arguments


Language

Unity

Stay on topic.

Coherency

Use logical reasoning patterns.

Cohesion

Transition from one idea to the next.


Assessment